Distress in Animals: Is it Fear, Pain or Physical Stress?

Distressed Animal

Almost 20 years after this paper was published, the debate continues over whether large animals like cattle and horses suffer from pain like humans. The issue is complicated because when cattle or horses suffer injury, they often hide the pain. Hiding pain is a behavior that evolved to protect animals from predators during times of injury or sickness. This article argues that rats, cats, dogs, horses, and cattle can suffer from long-term pain chronic pain. All the same, when assessing suffering, fear stress should be considered crucial as suffering induced by pain. Both fear and pain can cause suffering.